About Me: "Wakiya" (Thunder)
I am a Tribal, Musician, Writer, Artist. I try to walk the path and have studied the tradition of the "Wisdom keepers" like Lame Deer, Fools Crow, Black Elk, and Rolling Thunder from the tribes of this region, and Lao Tzu, Buddha, Bodhidharma, Yeshua, and other enlightened ones from the many various tribes of the earth. I understand the worlds religions and belief systems, and realize the division this can cause by the lack of understanding the "real message" from the Masters. My intention, and life's prayer is to try to live in harmony with Grandmother Earth, Grandfather sky, (Nature) and "the spirit that moves in all things," and help in any way I can to build a bridge between all men and tribes so they can walk their path in a manner that will benefit themselves, the Earth and others. I open up, and ask Great Spirit, The creator, The Tao, The Universe, to work and direct healing and positive energy through me by different means, like the Flute, drums, Words, Prayer, and Touch. I try to be loving and accept others from the heart, and practice forgiveness. I honor all people, the winged one's, and four legged ones considering us all equal, not one being above another. I honor the bountiful Harvest from Mother earth in the form of plant life, water, air and herbs which sustain our oneness with her. I pray all tribes should re-unite as one, so we may protect the planet and live in harmony. Within you, without you.
( all my relations)
The Indian Scouts of the United States Army were Native Americans recruited primarily to assist and fight in the Indian Wars of the Western United States. There were also scouts known as "Civilian Scouts" who were not Native Americans; some of these became prominent historical figures. Two of the most prominent were Kit Carson and Buffalo Bill Cody.
* 1 Recruitment and enlistment
* 2 Difference between Civilian and Indian Scouts
* 3 Indian Scouts after the Indian Wars
* 4 Pensions
* 5 Insignia
* 6 See also
* 7 References
Recruitment and enlistment
Recruitment of Indian scouts was first authorized on 28 July 1866 by an act of Congress.
"The President is authorized to enlist and employ in the Territories and Indian country a force of Indians not to exceed one thousand to act as scouts, who shall receive the pay and allowances of cavalry soldiers, and be discharged whenever the necessity for further employment is abated, at the discretion of the department commander."
The scouts were recruited from many Native American nations, such as the Navajo and other Apachean nations and the Crow nation. Among the U.S. Army Indian scouts was a group of Black Seminoles who had enlisted in the Army in 1870 and became known as the "Seminole Negro Indian Scouts".
The length of an "Indian Scout's" enlistment varied as was authorized by the 1866 statute. For example Navajo Scouts were typically enlisted and then discharged for 3-6 month periods. The same men might serve multiple enlistments. A cavalry period of enlistment was for 5 years. In 1895 Indian Scouts, as a class of military soldiers, were merged into the regular army.
The scouts were allocated by Military District. In 1873 the War Department wrote to the Department of Mississippi "that 50 Indian Scouts be allowed for the District of New Mexico to be enlisted and discharged at the pleasure of the Department Commander." The District then made an allocation of scouts per Fort.
Difference between Civilian and Indian Scouts
Civilians were hired by the military as contractors and were sometimes called scouts. Native Americans were usually enlisted in the military. A civilian contractor scout did not hold rank, although they might have a title (for example Albert Sieber held the title "Chief of Scouts"). Native Americans who served repeated enlistments might be given a higher rank (for example Sgt. Jose Chavez). A civilian contractor scout did not receive discharge papers from the military and was not eligible for a pension; "Indian Scouts" received discharge papers. In the 1920s and 1930s, some of these men or their widowed spouses applied for and received pensions for their military service.
Indian Scouts after the Indian Wars
During the Pancho Villa Expedition of 1916 twenty Indian scouts reinforced the 11th Cavalry but were too late to take part in the fighting.
New regulations for the Indian Scouts in 1917 replaced the former enlistments for various periods of time to a seven year enlistment like all other soldiers. The regulations also specified that sergeants and corporals of scouts could be appointed depending on the size of the scout detachment.
Though Native Americans were exempt from conscription in World War I, over 12,000 joined the American Expeditionary Force. A unit of Choctaw codetalkers served in France.
The separate units of Indian Scouts were disbanded on 30 June 1921. In 1922 the remaining scouts were transferred to Fort Huachuca, Arizona where they served alongside the 25th Infantry Regiment until the remaining few retired in 1947. Newsreel footage of the remaining eight Indian Scouts was filmed in 1942.
Pensions were given to Indian Scouts and are a source of oral history about their service. The act of March 3, 1927 amending the law of March 4, 1917, Indian Survivors, grants pensions as follows: 62 years, $20 per month, 68 years $30 per month, 72 years $40 per month, 75 years $50 per month. Widows who married soldiers before March 4 1917 are granted pensions at $30 per month & $6 per month for each child under 16 years of age. This law includes all Indian Campaigns from the year 1817 to 1898 and regardless of age and includes a disability clause.
There were Pension Examiners, who had a four tier test. Since many claimants did not have their discharge papers, they had to rely upon muster rolls or "may make proof of service by furnishing evidence satisfactory to the Commission of Pensions". Usually this meant written statements about service and collaborations from others who served with the claimant.
For example in New Mexico, Pension Examiners had an index list of New Mexico Scout names and their enlistment number. There are over 600 names with about 900 enlistments. Over 150 pensions were granted to Navajos for their service.
The Indian Scouts were distinguished by a branch of service insignia of crossed arrows. In 1942 this insignia was worn by the 1st Special Service Force with the crossed arrows then becoming the insignia of the US Army Special Forces.